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A hive's inhabitants are generally divided into three types. Workers are the only bees that most people ever see. These bees are females that are not sexually developed.
Workers forage for food pollen and nectar from flowers , build and protect the hive, clean, circulate air by beating their wings, and perform many other societal functions.
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The Blessings of Childhood, Part 1 — Generosity. Melissa McGroarty May 25, Melissa McGroarty May 9, Honey bees have three castes : drones , workers, and queens.
Drones are typically haploid , having only one set of chromosomes , and primarily exist for the purpose of reproduction. There are rare instances of diploid drone larvae.
This phenomenon usually arises when there are more than two generations of brother-sister mating. In developing bees, if the conditions are that the individual is heterozygous for the csd gene, they will develop into females.
If the conditions are so that the individual is hemizygous or homozygous for the csd gene, they will develop into males. The instances where the individual is homozygous at this gene are the instances of diploid males.
They do not defend the hive or kill intruders, and do not have a stinger. Workers have two sets of chromosomes.
Workers typically develop in 21 days. A typical colony may contain as many as 60, worker bees. Their duties change upon the age of the bee in the following order beginning with cleaning out their own cell after eating through their capped brood cell : feed brood, receive nectar, clean hive, guard duty, and foraging.
Workers have morphological specializations, including the pollen basket corbicula ,  abdominal glands that produce beeswax, brood-feeding glands, and barbs on the sting.
Under certain conditions for example, if the colony becomes queenless , a worker may develop ovaries. Worker honey bees perform different behavioural tasks that cause them to be exposed to different local environments.
Queen honey bees are created when worker bees feed a single female larvae an exclusive diet of a food called " royal jelly ".
In addition to the greater size of the queen, she has a functional set of ovaries, and a spermatheca, which stores and maintains sperm after she has mated.
Apis queens practice polyandry , with one female mating with multiple males. The highest documented mating frequency for an Apis queen is in Apis nigrocincta , where queens mate with an extremely high number of males with observed numbers of different matings ranging from 42 to 69 drones per queen.
Once mated, queens may lay up to 2, eggs per day. When a fertile female worker produces drones, a conflict arises between her interests and those of the queen.
The worker shares half her genes with the drone and one-quarter with her brothers, favouring her offspring over those of the queen.
The queen shares half her genes with her sons and one-quarter with the sons of fertile female workers. This relationship leads to a phenomenon known as "worker policing".
In these rare situations, other worker bees in the hive who are genetically more related to the queen's sons than those of the fertile workers will patrol the hive and remove worker-laid eggs.
Another form of worker-based policing is aggression toward fertile females. In very rare instances workers subvert the policing mechanisms of the hive, laying eggs which are removed at a lower rate by other workers; this is known as anarchic syndrome.
Anarchic workers can activate their ovaries at a higher rate and contribute a greater proportion of males to the hive. Although an increase in the number of drones would decrease the overall productivity of the hive, the reproductive fitness of the drones' mother would increase.
Anarchic syndrome is an example of selection working in opposite directions at the individual and group levels for the stability of the hive.
Under ordinary circumstances the death or removal of a queen increases reproduction in workers, and a significant proportion of workers will have active ovaries in the absence of a queen.
The workers of the hive produce a last batch of drones before the hive eventually collapses. Although during this period worker policing is usually absent, in certain groups of bees it continues.
According to the strategy of kin selection , worker policing is not favored if a queen does not mate multiple times.
Workers would be related by three-quarters of their genes, and the difference in relationship between sons of the queen and those of the other workers would decrease.
The benefit of policing is negated, and policing is less favored. Experiments confirming this hypothesis have shown a correlation between higher mating rates and increased rates of worker policing in many species of social hymenoptera.
All honey bees live in colonies where the workers sting intruders as a form of defense, and alarmed bees release a pheromone that stimulates the attack response in other bees.
The different species of honey bees are distinguished from all other bee species and virtually all other Hymenoptera by the possession of small barbs on the sting, but these barbs are found only in the worker bees.
The sting apparatus, including the barbs, may have evolved specifically in response to predation by vertebrates, as the barbs do not usually function and the sting apparatus does not detach unless the sting is embedded in fleshy tissue.
While the sting can also penetrate the membranes between joints in the exoskeleton of other insects and is used in fights between queens , in the case of Apis cerana japonica , defense against larger insects such as predatory wasps e.
Asian giant hornet is usually performed by surrounding the intruder with a mass of defending worker bees, which vibrate their muscles vigorously to raise the temperature of the intruder to a lethal level "balling".
Defense can vary based on the habitat of the bee. In the case of those honey bee species with open combs e. Another act of defense against nest invaders, particularly wasps, is "body shaking," a violent and pendulum like swaying of the abdomen, performed by worker bees.
The stings of honey bees are barbed and therefore embed themselves into the sting site, and the sting apparatus has its own musculature and ganglion which keep delivering venom even after detachment.
The embedded stinger continues to emit additional alarm pheromone after it has torn loose; other defensive workers are thereby attracted to the sting site.
The worker dies after the sting becomes lodged and is subsequently torn loose from the bee's abdomen. The honey bee's venom, known as apitoxin , carries several active components, the most abundant of which is melittin ,  and the most biologically active are enzymes , particularly phospholipase A2.
Honey bee venom is under laboratory and clinical research for its potential properties and uses in reducing risks for adverse events from bee venom therapy ,  rheumatoid arthritis ,  and use as an immunotherapy for protection against allergies from insect stings.
With an increased number of honey bees in a specific area due to beekeeping, Western honey bees as an invasive species and native wild bees often have to compete for the limited habitat and food sources available,  and Western honey bees may become defensive in response to the seasonal arrival of competition from other colonies, particularly Africanized bees which may be on the offence and defence year round due to their tropical origin.
Honey bees are known to communicate through many different chemicals and odors, as is common in insects. They also rely on a sophisticated dance language that conveys information about the distance and direction to a specific location typically a nutritional source, e.
The dance language is also used during the process of reproductive fission, or swarming, when scouts communicate the location and quality of nesting sites.
The details of the signalling being used vary from species to species; for example, the two smallest species, Apis andreniformis and A.
Carniolan honey bees Apis mellifera carnica use their antennae asymmetrically for social interactions, with a strong lateral preference to use their right antennae.
There has been speculation as to honey bee consciousness. Honey bees have a tiny structure that appears similar to a human midbrain, so if it functions the same way they may possibly be able to achieve a small amount of simple awareness of their bodies.
The bee was used as a symbol of government by Emperor Napoleon I of France. The priestess at Delphi was the "Delphic Bee".
The Quran has a Sura chapter titled " The Bee ". It is named after honey bees, and contains a comparison of the industry and adaptability of honey bees to the industry of man.
And your Lord taught the honey bee to build its cells in hills, on trees, and in men's habitations; Then to eat of all the produce of the earth , and find with skill the spacious paths of its Lord: there issues from within their bodies a drink of varying colours, wherein is healing for men: verily in this is a Sign for those who give thought.
In ancient Egyptian mythology, honey bees were believed to be born from the tears of the Sun God , Ra. A community of honey bees has often been employed by political theorists as a model of human society, from Aristotle and Plato to Virgil.
The state of Utah is called the "Beehive State", the state emblem is the beehive, the state insect is the honey bee, and a beehive and the word "industry" appear on both the state flag and seal.
A coloured dot applied by a beekeeper identifies the queen. Eastern honey bee A. Honey bee collecting pollen from turnip blossoms in Eastern Oklahoma.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 8 December Eusocial flying insect of genus Apis, producing surplus honey.
For other uses, see Honey bee disambiguation. Linnaeus , Main article: Apis mellifera. Main article: Africanized bee. Main articles: Pollination management and List of crop plants pollinated by bees.
Main article: Beekeeping. Main article: Colony collapse disorder. Main article: Honey. Main article: Beeswax. Main article: Bee pollen. Main article: Propolis.
Main article: Royal jelly. Main article: Drone bee. Main article: Worker bee. Main article: Queen bee. Main article: Worker policing. Main article: Bee sting.
This section needs additional citations for verification. The two female castes are known as workers , which are females that do not attain sexual maturity, and queens , females that are larger than the workers.
The males, or drones , are larger than the workers and are present only in early summer. The workers and queens have stingers, whereas the drones are stingless.
Queen honeybees store sperm in a structure known as the spermatheca , which allows them to control the fertilization of their eggs. Thus queens can lay eggs that are either unfertilized or fertilized.
Unfertilized eggs develop into drones, whereas fertilized eggs develop into females, which may be either workers or virgin queens.
Eggs destined to become queens are deposited in queen cells, which are vertical cells in the honeycomb that are larger than normal.
After hatching, the virgin queens are fed royal jelly , a substance produced by the salivary glands of the workers. When not fed a diet consisting solely of royal jelly, virgin queens will develop into workers.
During the swarming season, in the presence of a weak queen or in the absence of a queen, workers may lay unfertilized eggs, which give rise to drones.
For all three forms of honeybees, eggs hatch in three days and then develop into larvae that are known as grubs. All grubs are fed royal jelly at first, but only the future queens are continued on the diet.
When fully grown, the grubs transform into pupae. Queens emerge in 16 days, workers in about 21 days on average , and drones in 24 days.
After emerging, the queens fight among themselves until only one remains in the hive. The old queen and the majority of her workers typically have left the hive by the time the new queens emerge.
The swarm, which typically reproduces during swarming, may form two or more new colonies at different nesting sites.
A queen will often mate with many drones, a mating behaviour known as polyandry. Polyandry increases genetic diversity within a colony and thereby improves colony fitness and survival.